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Racial disproportionality in education effects BIPOC in many ways. Due to the extent that racism is involved in our education system, knowing where to start in creating equity in education can be difficult. McIntosh and colleagues (2019) have created a presentation on how to build commitment in enhancing educational equity that may be a helpful place to start. He also has provided resources for enhancing PBIS with cultural responsiveness methods.

One major way students of color are disproportionately affected is discipline, which can lead to other negative affects in academic instruction. McIntosh and colleagues (2018) have created a five-point guide to address and prevent racial discipline disproportionality that focus on using discipline data to implement a multi-tiered, culturally responsive behavior framework and develop policies that promote disciplinary equity. The following resources will be arranged according to this five-point guide.

*As you navigate through this research and these resources, here are some reflection questions to keep in mind: Equity Reflection Questions

Resources for Enhancing Educational Equity

5-Point Guide Resource Description
1. Collect, Use, and Report Disaggregated Discipline Data PBIS: Using Discipline Data within SWPBIS to Identify and Address Disproportionality: A Guide for School Teams (2014)

[Recommended For Teams]

The purpose of this guide is to provide a reference for SWPBIS school teams in the use of discipline data (e.g., office discipline referrals, suspensions) in the area of racial and ethnic disproportionality in school discipline. The guide will describe a framework and steps for identifying levels of disproportionality, analyzing data to determine solutions, and monitoring the effectiveness of action plans in addressing disproportionality.
PBIS: Equity in School Discipline: Enhancing Commitment Through Teacher Training (2019)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This video is a short introduction into working with data to address specific times and locations associated with disproportionality along with an example of how a school analyzed their data and used it to make adjustments to their practices.
DE-PBS Major vs. Minor Behavior Resources

[Recommended for Teams]

This page contains a worksheet for determining major vs. minor behaviors, a behavior definition activity sheet, and an example from Harlan Elementary School.
2. Implement a Behavior Framework that is Preventative, Multi-tiered, and Culturally Responsive PBIS Cultural Responsiveness Field Guide: Resources for Trainers and Coaches (2019) 

[Recommended for Coaches and Teams]

This guide focuses on assisting trainers and coaches in school wide PBIS teams in implementing culturally responsive practices to enhance equity systemically.
NASP: A Framework for Safe and Successful Schools (2020)

[Recommended for Coaches and Teams]

This guide supported by educators aims to improve school safety and access to mental health supports through an interdisciplinary collaboration and a multi-tiered system of supports.
Restorative Practices: Fostering Healthy Relationships & Promoting Positive Discipline in Schools: A Guide for Educators (2014)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This toolkit explains how restorative practices can foster healthy relationships in schools and demonstrates how to incorporate restorative strategies into curriculum, classrooms, and school culture.
San Francisco Unified School District (n.d.).  Restorative Practices Whole-School Implementation Guide

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This in-depth guide provides a step by step, evidence-based approach to implementing restorative practices school-wide and district-wide used by the San Francisco Unified School District. It includes various forms to gain staff, family, and community opinions, school climate surveys, and other data to determine what practices are needed.
 

PBIS: Embedding Culturally Responsive Practices in Tier 1 (2020)

[Recommended for Teams]

This guide expands on ways teams can examine school policies for systemic patterns of inequity as well as ways to have discussions on how schools have contributed to the devaluing of the culture of students of color, leading to disengagement.
3. Use Engaging Instruction to Reduce the Opportunity (achievement) Gap Examples of Engaging Instruction to Increase Equity in Education (2015)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This technical brief, based on the 5-point multicomponent approach to reduce disproportionality focuses on defining key principles of evidence-based instructional practices, and describing how academic instruction is related to equity in school discipline.
Racial Justice in Education: Resource Guide (2017)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This guide discusses the importance of racial equity in schools, teaches about how to create a space to talk about race in the classroom, tools for assessment, and strategic planning and action.
Creating the Space to Talk About Race in Your School

[Recommended for Teachers]

This website provides guidance on the ways an educator can create a space for staff and students to talk about race in the classroom.
4. Develop Policies with Accountability for Disciplinary Equity Key Elements of Policies to Address Discipline Disproportionality: A Guide for District and School Team (2015)

[Recommended for Coaches and Teams]

This guide provides resources for districts and schools in developing policies and procedures to reduce racial and ethnic disproportionality in school discipline.
A 5-point Intervention Approach for Enhancing Equity in School Discipline (2018)

[Recommended for Coaches and Teams]

This guide provides 5 steps to address and prevent racial discipline disproportionality that focus on using discipline data to implement a multi-tiered, culturally responsive behavior framework and develop policies that promote disciplinary equity.
Leading for Equity: Opportunities for State Education Chiefs (2017)

[Recommended for Coaches and District personnel]

This document provides 10 actions state chiefs can take to create a more equitable education system in their state.
Pursuing social and emotional development through a racial equity lens: 5 strategies for system leaders to take action (2018)

[Recommended for Teams]

This document outlines five potential strategies system leaders can use to pursue social and emotional development through an equity lens.
Racial Justice in Education: Resource Guide (2017)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This guide discusses the importance of racial equity in schools, teaches about how to create a space to talk about race in the classroom, tools for assessment, and strategic planning and action.
5. Teach Strategies for Neutralizing Implicit Bias in Discipline Decisions Neutralizing Implicit Bias in School Discipline (2017)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This presentation describes implicit bias, how it affects disproportionality in discipline, and ways to overcome implicit biases.
Related and Additional Resources Equity & Social and Emotional Learning: A Cultural Analysis. CASEL Frameworks Briefs (2018)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This document breaks down each core competency in terms of potential concerns  and potential opportunities regarding minority and marginalized communities. It also discusses promising approaches, programs, and practices as well as the importance of adult SEL and implications for assessment.
CASEL: Leveraging SEL to Promote Equity: What Educators Need to Know and Do (2018)

[Recommended for Educators]

This video provides insight to educational equity and the ways educators can incorporate SEL strategies in order to improve equitable educational environments for all students.
Applying an Equity Lens to Social, Emotional, and Academic Development (2018)

[Recommended for Coaches and Teams]

This document breaks down barriers that contribute to inequitable access to SEL education into systemic, institutional, and individual levels. It also discusses programs, initiatives, and policies to help address this issue.
Expelled: Racial Inequality in School Discipline 

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This podcast by Kent McIntosh discusses the origins of disproportionality in school discipline and the interventions that should be used to reduce these disparities.
NASP: External Social Justice Resources (2020)

[Recommended for Teams and Teachers]

This website from NASP provides guides books, and podcasts for teachers, parents, students in elementary and secondary schools, discussion guides, and books to engage in learning, self-reflection and discussion around social injustice against BIPOC.
So You Want to Talk About Race? (2018)

[Recommended for Teachers]

This book, written by Ijeoma Oluo, discusses the many ways systemic race affects people of color and includes a few chapters about the negative impacts racial discrimination can have on students of color. She offers ways to have productive conversations about race.

 

 


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References

Anderson et al., (2014). Restorative Practices: Fostering Healthy Relationships & Promoting Positive Discipline in Schools: A Guide for Educators, 1-13. Retrieved fromhttp://schottfoundation.org/sites/default/files/restorative-practices-guide.pdf

Chaparro, E. A., Nese, R. N. T., & McIntosh, K. (2015). Examples of engaging instruction to increase equity in education. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. www.pbis.org.

Green, A., Nese, R. N. T., McIntosh, K., Nishioka, V., Eliason, B. M., & Canizal Delabra, A. (2015). Key elements of policies to address discipline disproportionality: A guide for district and school teams. Eugene, OR: Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. University of Oregon.

Jagers, R., Randall-Garner, P., Van Ausdal, K. (2018). Leveraging SEL to promote equity: What educators need to know and do. CASEL. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o2bB-08hikM&feature=youtu.be

Jagers, R. J., Rivas-Drake, D., & Borowski, T. (2018). Equity & social and emotional learning: A cultural analysis. CASEL Frameworks Briefs.

Leverson, M., Smith, K., McIntosh, K., Rose, J., & Pinkerman, S. (2019). PBIS cultural responsiveness field guide: resources for trainers and coaches. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

McIntosh, K. (2019). Equity in school discipline: Enhancing commitment through teacher training. Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. https://www.pbis.org/video/equity-in-school-discipline-enhancing-commitment-through-teacher-training 

McIntosh, K. (2017). Neutralizing Implicit Bias in School Discipline. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

McIntosh, K. Expelled: Racial Inequality in School Discipline. Retrieved from: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/why-we-do-what-we-do/id1237073374?i=1000444128374

McIntosh, K. (n.d.). Resources for Enhancing the Cultural Responsiveness of PBIS. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

McIntosh, K., Barnes, A., Eliason, B., & Morris, K. (2014). Using discipline data within SWPBIS to identify and address disproportionality: A guide for school teams. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. www.pbis.org.

McIntosh, K., Bastable, E., Sandomierski, T., & Hall, R. (2019). Cultivating a durable commitment to equity: Where do we start? National PBIS Leadership Forum. 

McIntosh, K.., Girvan, E. J., Horner, R. H., Smolkowski, K., & Sugai, G. (2018). A 5-point intervention approach for enhancing equity in school discipline. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. 

National Association of School Psychologists (2020). A Framework for Safe and Successful Schools. Retrieved from: https://www.nasponline.org/resources-and-publications/resources-and-podcasts/school-climate-safety-and-crisis/systems-level-prevention/a-framework-for-safe-and-successful-schools

National Education Association (2020). Creating the space to talk about race in your school. Edjustice. Retrieved from: https://neaedjustice.org/social-justice-issues/racial-justice/talking-about-race/ 

National Education Association. (2017). Racial Justice in Education – Resource Guide. Retrieved from: https://neaedjustice.org/racial-justice-is-education-justice/ 

Oluo, I. (2018). So You Want to Talk About Race? Seal Press, NY.

Rose, J., Leverson, M., & Smith, K. (2020). Embedding culturally responsive practices in Tier 1. Center on PBIS. 

San Francisco Unified School District (n.d.).  Restorative Practices Whole-School Implementation Guide. Retrieved from: https://www.healthiersf.org/RestorativePractices/Resources/documents/SFUSD%20Whole%20School%20Implementation%20Guide%20final.pdf

Simmons, D. N., Brackett, M. A., & Adler, N. (2018). Applying an equity lens to social, emotional, and academic development. Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, Pennsylvania State University. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1TN7PeBRUuEVfWdrNJ4d33NQ949pqsykg/view 

The Aspen Education & Society Program and the Council of Chief State School Officers. (2017). Leading for Equity: Opportunities for State Education Chiefs. Washington, D.C.

The Aspen Education & Society Program. (2018). Pursuing social and emotional development through a racial equity lens: 5 strategies for system leaders to take action. Washington, D.C.